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Jobs and internships: Find your leadership potential this summer

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Climbing into the lifeguard chair for the summer? Decorating your cubicle at your new internship? In a recent survey by SH101, two out of three students who responded said they expected to have at least one job or internship this summer. Whatever you’re doing, for whatever reason, it’s worth strategizing about ways you can use the experience to develop leadership skills.

Why leadership? Two reasons: First, employers love leadership. Four out of five employers look for leadership skills on new college graduates’ résumés, according to the Job Outlook 2016 survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers. Second, “leadership” is broad enough that you can potentially find ways to demonstrate relevant characteristics and skills in any situation, including working as a lifeguard or camp counselor. For more comprehensive resources, and to make your summer work on your résumé, see Get help or find out more.

What counts as leadership?

Here’s why it’s worth getting comfortable with the idea of yourself as a potential leader. Not all leaders have the title “president” or boss other people around. Leadership is about having influence and inspiring others to take productive action. When you think about leadership, remember these key points:

  • Leadership takes many different forms, and not all of them are readily apparent.
  • Leadership spans many skill sets and personality types.
  • Anyone can learn to lead, even in unconventional situations.

We can hone leadership skills without winning a war or finding a cure for disease. Leadership includes these skills and more:

  • Interpersonal communication
  • Community-building actions that strengthen a shared sense of purpose
  • Conflict resolution and teamwork
  • Motivating and supporting others, including acknowledging their efforts
  • Managing your time, and helping others manage theirs, including delegating tasks and keeping a group on track
  • Including people who are often marginalized and excluded
  • Giving and receiving constructive criticism
  • Innovative thinking

Does everything have to be about your résumé?

As much as we’re talking here about career potential, other goals are valuable too: earning money, developing yourself personally, keeping busy, and having fun. It’s OK if your summer isn’t directly about building your résumé. It’s worth thinking about it through that lens, however, because you might find that your role has some career relevance that you hadn’t spotted initially. For example, working retail or in the food industry can build customer service and communication skills.

3 strategies to build leadership experience you can use later

1  Remember that metrics matter:

Hiring managers want to know the numbers. Use statistics and precise information. How many events did you help staff? Your organization or club’s social media followers grew by what percentage? How much money did you help raise? How many like-minded organizations did you reach out to about a potential collaboration? When you took over tracking inventory, how much of your boss’s time did you free up for them to work on growing the business? Track your activities and tasks on a spreadsheet for easy access in a job search.

How to keep track of your workplace goals and accomplishments

  • When you’re getting started in your job or internship, talk to your supervisor about realistic, measurable goals. For example, your goals may include writing a certain number of blog posts, signing up a certain number of customers for a rewards program, or developing enough knowledge that you can take on some managerial duties before the end of the summer. Look for some element of challenge and an opportunity to show your skills and effort, but not setting the goals so high that you can’t meet them. Your supervisor can help you figure out what’s attainable.
  • Keep a simple spreadsheet outlining what you did in the job or internship. This can help your current supervisor write future letters of recommendation, help you flesh out your résumé and LinkedIn profile, and help you prepare for interviews. You might be amazed at what you accomplish in one summer.

2  Think about ways to add value:

Future interviewers will want to hear your stories about specific projects, ideas, or accomplishments. Here’s what that could look like.

Find ways to demonstrate your initiative
Managers love when employees or interns propose new projects to expand their programs or increase revenue. These types of projects show innovation, creativity, and commitment, all valuable leadership traits. It’s especially valuable if your initiative will be sustainable when you’re no longer around to do it. Just make sure you have enough time to complete the tasks you were initially assigned and are in a position to take on any extra work.

Consider what you could accomplish this summer:

  • If you’re interning at a small nonprofit, you might volunteer to create a spreadsheet and tracking system for prospective donors.
  • If you’re working retail at a local business, you might volunteer to redesign the store’s website or brochures to attract new customers from the local college.
  • If you’re a sleepaway camp counselor, you might design and lead a new activity to keep campers engaged.
  • If you’re at the mom-and-pop ice cream stand, you may want to highlight your readiness to work a double shift to cover for coworkers who bailed, or your willingness to design T-shirts or signs.

3  Think about how these experiences could transfer to your career:

Future employers want to know that you can apply those same skills to their own organizations and challenges. When preparing for job interviews, plan how you’ll tell your stories of overcoming challenges, developing your own projects, and helping your employer accomplish their goals. The creativity, persistence, and dedication that you put into that new sign, updated database, or increased Facebook “likes” could translate into real, usable assets at your future company (depending on their strategic goals).

How to approach barriers affecting marginalized communities

If you have a condition that may be relevant to your presentation or performance, it can be useful to address it (without necessarily disclosing a diagnosis). For example:

  • “Verbal instructions can be harder for me to remember. It would be helpful if you could give me written notes or emails about my assignments to make sure I have what I need to do my best.”
  • “This is my first time working in an office—I hope to learn a lot this summer. It would be great if you could point out to me how things work, even if you think it might seem obvious, so I can learn even more.”

Put this into practice: How to make it work in person and on paper

Almost any work placement can provide opportunities to develop leadership skills. Here, students identify what they learned from short-term roles in four different fields. Jeff Onore, a career coach based in Massachusetts, discusses how they can present that experience to employers—in person or on paper. These strategies are relevant to a wide range of career interests, skills, and experiences.

Student perspective

How to talk about it

Government agency

“I worked with [a county probation department], and I was taught to be more responsible and take deadlines seriously. I also learned that you yourself are solely responsible for your work and to always double-check [everything].”
—Third-year undergraduate, California State University, Channel Islands
“Working with a probation department tells me the student is mature and professional. Employers like to see people do challenging things in challenging environments. Stress the fast pace as well as the empathy you need to work in that field.”


“I gained a lot of leadership skills in a job in a daycare. Working with children aged six weeks to five years presents a new challenge every day, sometimes basic and other times very complicated. It requires making a lot of judgment calls on your feet and then communicating about your decisions to parents and supervisors later.”
—First-year graduate student, University of Delaware
“Own this; confidently say [you] gained leadership skills working in a daycare, a role that some people would play down. You can say, for example, ‘One thing I’ve learned about leadership: You need to stay calm.’”

Student perspective

How to talk about it

Amateur theater

“As stage manager for a college play, I knew that some cast members got along better than others, but all had to interact. After and before rehearsals, I’d ensure everyone was in a decent mood, and work out any misgivings.”
—Fourth-year undergraduate, Wayland Baptist University, Texas
“Stage Manager, 2014–2017:

  • Four major productions: South Pacific, The King & I, Romeo and Juliet, The Bachelor Goes Live.
  • Casts of 20–40; crews included lighting, sound, props, and costumes; coordinated these often conflicting departments and teams.”

Summer camp

“I was a camp counselor, which makes it easy to gain authority over the group, but more difficult to have a common communication basis where they feel comfortable talking to you about what they need [while also respecting] rules you set into place.”
—Third-year undergraduate, University of Central Arkansas
Include the metrics, and put some meat on the role:

  • “22 campers, 24/7 responsibility
  • Organized camp-wide Olympics, securing buy-in from the head counselors and students.
  • Facilitated the closing ceremonies for audience of families, recognizing each student.”

Presenting the tough stuff: How 5 students can address workplace obstacles

The workplace brings frustrations and constraints, as well as opportunities. Here, students describe five barriers that may make it harder for them to transfer certain skills and experiences into jobs after graduation. Jeff Onore, a career coach based in Massachusetts, looks at ways to approach it. These strategies are relevant to a wide range of career interests, skills, and experiences.

Student perspective

Expert perspective

1.  Gender/sexuality bias

“I am unsure if I can give my most valuable leadership positions—as president and vice president of finance of the Queer Student Alliance—on my résumé, for fear of discrimination or implicit bias against me.”
—Second-year undergraduate, Tulane University, Louisiana
“There may be room to say you effected social change as president of a student alliance. Be prepared at your interview to be asked the name of the organization. If you’re applying to pretty liberal employers—universities, arts, etc.—this may not be an issue. In more conservative fields, the reality is that this can be trickier to navigate.”

2.  Sexual harassment

“Sexual harassment has caused me to leave an internship at a law firm.”
—Second year graduate student, Johns Hopkins University, Maryland
“No one will ask why you left an internship the way they might ask why you left a job. In this case, focus on what you learned in the internship.”

3.  Economic hardship

“It’s very difficult to participate in unpaid internships, offered by many nonprofits, when the cost of higher education is so debilitating.”
—Fourth-year graduate student, Emory University, Georgia
“Employers understand that financing college imposes more constraints on some students than others. If you don’t have much internship experience in your field, go right to this framing: It was important for you to work, and this is what you accomplished in the jobs you held (your good work ethic, your time management, and so on).”

4.  Deafness and disability discrimination

“[It was problematic that I had] no access to communication: American Sign Language, transcripts, closed captioning, etc.”
—First-year graduate student, California State University, Northridge
“If your college has connections with companies that do a good job accommodating deaf and disabled employees, start there. Some employers can be identified through the Lime Connect Network for the STEM fields or through chapters of the US Business Leadership Network in all fields. Disclosing deafness or a disability is unpredictable—some employers will be much more receptive than others. In the US, your right to reasonable accommodations on the job is protected by federal law. You can encourage an employer to contact the Job Accommodation Network for free expert help in figuring out accommodations. Or you might decide an employer isn’t worth the struggle.”
—Lucy Berrington, editor of Student Health 101

5. Age and gender discrimination

“Discrimination based on age and gender is something that I have been faced with, as I am a young female in the engineering field, which is predominately male. I know I am sometimes underestimated and pushed aside by peers because of this, but it only fuels my fire to be stronger and show them my leadership skills.”
—First-year graduate student, Villanova University, Pennsylvania
“The STEM fields are looking to recruit more women. Recognize your value to them. There may be a certain amount of age and gender discrimination, so it’s important to determine what the company culture is like. The first thing to do is to network through the engineering department at your school. People are often kind to those who have had a similar experience. Look at for information about the culture at corporate engineering departments, and use internships to take the temperature of different work environments. A large company may prioritize discrimination training; a small company may give you a chance to get certain kinds of experience more quickly.”


Article sources

Jodie Collins, supervisor, Multicultural and Student Programs, Olympic College, Washington.

Jeff Onore, career coach, Waltham, Massachusetts.

National Association of Colleges and Employers. (2017).  Job outlook 2016: Attributes employers want to see on new college graduates’ résumés. Retrieved from

Student Health 101 survey, February 2017.

The job prob: How (and why) to get that internship

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Internships are the “new interview”—your most likely route to a job, according to surveys of students, graduates, and employers. Here, experts say why.

Question: How much does an internship matter to employers?
Answer: A whole lot. “Practical experience is probably the number one thing that will move a resume toward the top of the pile.” — Jeff Reep, director of career services at Cedarville University, Ohio, and a certified professional career coach.

Question: What exactly can an internship do for me?
Answer: Provide essential experience and contacts. “Internships are oftentimes not only a learning experience but also a networking pathway to your first job. The more people you know in an industry, the better your chances.” —Lainee Beigel, attorney and founder of career coaching company Career Esquire, New York.

Question: I’m not sure what career I’m aiming for, so how can I choose an internship?
Answer: Think skill development. “Internships do not need to match up exactly with the job you apply for after school. Many practical skills are transferable across various industries.” —Lainee Beigel

Question: I can’t afford to take an unpaid internship.Am I doomed?
Answer: No. “Career-focused internships are preferable. However, it’s important to think about what skills and qualities you can emphasize. For example, as a waiter, you had to employ people skills and problem solving skills that can be applied to any job in any industry.” —Lauren Griffin, senior vice president at Adecco, a recruitment company in Boston.

Question: How can I make my summer serving ice-cream sound like a UN position?
Answer: You can’t. “Do not lie or embellish your resume or the jobs you did. You will be busted.” —Dana Manciagli, career coach, and author, based in Washington State.

Seven out of ten companies with 100+ employees offered full-time roles to their interns in 2012. They expected to hire more interns going forward.

Two in three employers say relevant work experience and interview performance are the most important factors in hiring (well ahead of academic performance).

Have a plan
5 steps to an intriguing internship & how they apply to two examples:

Have a plan: Artsy business student

Steps to a dynamic internship

Example: business major aiming for theater internship
  1. Start searching for opportunities 3-6 months in advance. Applying your skills in unexpected contexts can broaden your appeal to employers. Research local theatre companies, upcoming production schedules, and contacts (e.g., theatre directors, set coordinators).
  2. Identify two realistic ways your current skills could benefit the organization.
    • Generate some extra ticket sales
    • Reduce set costs
  3. Email the contacts you identified. Include a cover letter and your résumé. Explain why you are interested in this field and their business specifically. Let them know of your love of theater, how much you admired their recent production, and how you could contribute.
  4. Prepare for a phone conversation. Know what you could contribute to the organization, and ask what they need. Be flexible. You want to reduce the production budget, they need you to work on publicity? Adjust.
  5. Discuss a particular goal for your internship. A goal (e.g., reviewing expenses or identifying inefficiencies) will provide focus and add marketable skills to your résumé.

Have a plan: Green PR student

Steps to a dynamic internship

Example: public relations major aiming for organic farm internship
  1. Start searching for opportunities 3-6 months in advance. Applying your skills in unexpected contexts can broaden your appeal to employers. Check out farms locally and further away (some may provide housing).
  2. Identify two realistic ways your current skills could benefit the organization.
  3. Social media campaign:
    • Raise awareness of benefits of organic food production
    • Attract customers
  4. Email the contacts you identified. Include a cover letter and your résumé. Explain why you are interested in this field and their business specifically. Outline briefly your communication experience, why you care about organic farming, and how you could contribute to their business.
  5. Prepare for a phone conversation. Know what you could contribute to the organization, and ask what they need. Be flexible. While you may be fired up about a Twitter campaign, the farmers may be more interested in website content.
  6. Discuss a particular goal for your internship. Establish realistic metrics in for social media engagement, page views, etc., and ways to measure your impact on farm sales.
The Art of Change

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