Ask the professor: “Do you have any tips for reading academic journals that use unfamiliar words?”

Reading Time: 2 minutes Struggling to read an academic paper that’s full of jargon and difficult concepts? Use these tips to make your research go a little smoother.

The 15-min brain-boosting study strategy that works

Reading Time: 7 minutes

Studying much? You might be using the classic moves. You know—rewriting all your notes into a newer, bigger note; highlighting as the new underlining; and my personal favorite, cramming everything into your brain in any way possible. Sometimes those moves work just fine. But what if you’re looking for more than “just fine”? And what if you could get there with a little less stress and a little more purpose?

Researchers at Stanford University in California discovered that using some simple tricks made a big difference in how students performed. The research is based on a classic learning theory that seems pretty obvious when you break it down. It’s called metacognition, and it involves something we could all benefit from: thinking about how we think.

Intrigued? Let’s take a closer look at how metacognition can get you to a better spot with your study habits. Once you’ve got the basics down, we’ll show you how to use it with real-life tips that’ll help you reap the brain-boosting benefits. Bonus points if you drop the word “metacognition” with your friends when talking about your new secret to study success.

What to know about how to think

Metacognition is thinking about thinking, says Dr. Veronica Yan, an assistant professor of educational psychology at the University of Texas at Austin. OK, but what does that actually mean? It’s taking the time to consider how you think and why the process of reflecting on your thinking can give you some key insights into what you’re learning and what you’re missing. It means thinking through the methods, tools, and resources available to you and deciding which ones can best get you where you want to go.

Still with us? Think about it like this: Textbooks, tutors, academic advisors, past exam questions, and homework assignments are all resources that you can use to study—but what’s the purpose of each of them? How can they help you? And which ones will help the most? Now you’re thinking like someone who thinks about their thinking.

“We are constantly making decisions, but we aren’t always intentional about these decisions,” Dr. Yan says. So how exactly can doing this help?

Why thinking things through can get you better results

Girl studying at computer with book and post it notes

This is where it gets interesting. Researchers at Stanford University wondered if applying some of the principles of metacognition—setting goals, thinking about resources, and crafting a plan—would make a difference in students’ test results. They split students into two groups and reminded both about an upcoming exam.

One group just got a reminder. The other received a reminder and were also asked questions about how they wanted to do on the exam and how they were going to prep. The students received questions about their study resources—which ones they would choose, how they would use them, and why they felt these resources would be helpful—essentially having them create a study plan. The students who thought through their study plan, or used metacognition like pros, did better on their exams than those who did not map out a plan, according to the 2017 study in Psychological Science. They also reported feeling less stressed during the prep process.

“Learners should take the time to explicitly think through why they want to use each resource for learning,” says Dr. Patricia Chen, a postdoctoral research fellow at Stanford and one of the authors of the study. Bottom line: It’s about thinking carefully about your resources—how to choose them and how you’ll use them.

How to put it into practice

The best part about the Stanford research, and about metacognition in general, is that it’s simple—you can do it yourself by making a plan and setting some goals. And who knows? You may even see the same boost in results. Here’s how to go about it:

Step 1: Think about (and list out) your options before you study

This means ditching your autopilot plan and taking some time to make one that works. Start by jotting down the resources you have access to: books, notes, PowerPoints or class presentations, audio recordings, essay prompts, past quizzes or exams, the syllabus, tutors, classmates, online forums, review sessions, immediate access to the entirety of your professor’s brain, etc. Then list out how those resources could help you craft your plan.

Exam or quiz questions from earlier in the semester

How it can help
Your prof probably has a particular way of creating test questions, so if you’re looking at an exam from earlier in the semester, it’s likely the upcoming one will follow a similar format or ask questions in a similar way. Use that to your advantage. Practice your responses to the question type and exam format. Just be sure your prof is OK with you using past assessments for study, and steer clear of using materials from past semesters or sections of the class.

Expert approved
“This allows students to identify in advance which topics they need to spend more time on and which they are already very familiar with,” Dr. Chen says.

Step 2: Make your plan

Now that you know which resources will work best, it’s time to make it work for you. And that involves making a specific plan. Participants in the Stanford study were asked to do just that—plan when, where, and how they would use the study resources they identified. We know that worked for them. It can work for you too.

Try it like this
Make a chart that lists out the resources you’re using along with all the dirty details—when, where, how, and why.


Exam questions from earlier in the semester

Why this can work

Familiarize myself with the potential exam format and way prof asks questions

How I’m going to use it

  • Identify patterns in types of questions
  • Identify stuff I know from past exams and stuff I still need to work on
  • Think like a prof: How would new material be put into similar exam format or question type? Make a sample exam and test myself, or grab a classmate and create some sample questions for each other; test them out, see how we do, keep working at it

When and where

  • Monday 4–6 p.m.: Campus café
  • Wednesday 10–11 a.m.: Remote corner of the library

Expert approved

“Planning is crucial because it helps learners translate their strategies into action,” Dr. Chen says.

Step 3: Set and get those goals

Cup of coffee with napkin saying "Create your future"

It comes back to goal setting. Knowing what you’re looking to get out of your studying can help you get there. Think beyond pure performance here; what’s the long-term goal of knowing the material? A foot in the door at your first post-grad job? Feeling confident in applying your newfound knowledge? Grad school goals? Keep those in mind too. Write them down, add them to your chart, Sharpie them on your forehead—whatever makes them stick.

Student tested
“I realized that when I had goals, I did better and got more done. Working at things aimlessly, without goals, has led to poor results, in my experience. The more I reached my goals and saw how they were benefiting me, the better I performed and the more motivated I was.”
—Blair C., fourth-year student, Indiana University Southeast

Expert approved
“Goal setting helps learners clarify exactly what they want to achieve and focuses them on their goal as they plan out their studying,” Dr. Chen says.

Step 4: Know that you can

Yup, we’re asking you to have a little faith in yourself, and not just because you’re awesome (you definitely are), but because it actually affects how well you do.

Research backed
Self-efficacy, or simply believing that you’re capable of planning and carrying out the tasks necessary for your performance, was the greatest predictor of college students’ achievement and performance, according to a large review of research (Perspectives on Medical Education, 2012).

Try it like this

Unicorn stickerAs you’re working through your study plan, keep track of what you’re getting done. Hit your study session goal for the day? That’s a win. Mastered material you didn’t quite get last time? That counts too. Come up with a system for tracking them. We like unicorn stickers, but checking things off your to-do list will do in a pinch.

Those small successes are part of your bigger goals, and the more you see yourself moving in the right direction, the more likely you are to believe that you can keep going. The wins you rack up in the process are still there cheering for you when you slip up. So remind yourself of them early and often.

Steps 5 through infinity

Identifying resources, making plans, setting goals, and knowing you can hit them is an awesome plan of attack, but don’t be too hard on yourself if some of the steps are a struggle. You might have to do some finagling to figure out what works best for you. “It is the responsibility of the learner to experiment and identify what is most effective for themselves and when,” says Dr. Chen. So keep trying, keep track, and let us know how you do.

[school_resource sh101resources=’no’ category=’mobileapp,studentservices, studentsucess, helpdesk’] Get help or find out more

Article sources

Patricia Chen, PhD, postdoctoral researcher, Department of Psychology, Stanford University, California.

Veronica Yan, PhD, assistant professor, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Texas at Austin.

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Study smart. Retrieved from

Anderson, J. (2017, May 9). A Stanford researcher’s 15-minute study hack lifts B+ students into the As. Quartz. Retrieved from

Artino, A. R. (2012). Academic self-efficacy: From educational theory to instructional practice. Perspectives on Medical Education, 1(2), 76–85. Retrieved from

Chen, P., Chavez, O., Ong, D. C., & Gunderson, B. (2017). Strategic resource use for learning: A self-administered intervention that guides self-reflection on effective resource use enhances academic performance. Psychological Science, 28(6), 774–785. Retrieved from

Dartmouth College. (2001). Memory is learning that persists. Retrieved from

Tanner, K. D. (2012). Promoting student metacognition. CBE Life Sciences Education, 11(2), 113–120. Retrieved from

Ask the professor: “How do I choose a major or minor?”

Reading Time: 2 minutes

“How do I go about choosing a major or minor?”—Taylor V.*, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador

*Name changed

Choosing a major can be a joyous occasion (Hey, I found my life’s calling!) or it can be anxiety-producing (What if I change my mind? What if I realize I don’t like it?) or somewhere in between. I remember alternately experiencing highs and lows after I decided to major in English literature. While I loved my classes and the work, I didn’t love answering the question “And what are you going to do with that?”

What intrigues you?

  • Another way to ask this is “What classes interest you?”
  • The answer to this question can help you determine what major may sustain your interest over the long haul of completing a degree. To figure this out, scan your university’s course descriptions in majors you’re considering.
  • Do the class descriptions excite you? Make you curious to learn more? Seem like fun or worthwhile?
  • Be sure to look at all levels of classes, not just the ones you are eligible to take.

What bores you?

  • Or you may ask yourself, what topics would be excruciating for you to study?
  • Finding what you don’t like is just as important as discovering what you do like. No offense to anyone reading this, but I would have never felt excited in a music or a math class. And while I do like the process of learning, the thought of cutting something open and observing it in a science class did not excite me as a college student. Scanning descriptions of courses can start you on the road to narrowing down your choices.

What’s your overall goal?

  • Do you want to step into an entry-level job after graduation, or do you want to go directly to a graduate program.
  • The answer to that question—even if you’re not 100 percent sure now—may affect your decision on a major. For example, if you’re eying a job as a speech pathologist after college, you may want to do a little research to determine what majors are most likely to get into speech pathology graduate programs. Or if you want to go to law school, do some research on the majors of the top law students. (Hint: It may not be political science.)
  • You can use the same research steps if you want to go straight into the workforce. There are some industries in which a specific major is required, and there are others in which there is no preference for a specific major.

What are the requirements for this major?

  • Once you determine a few possible majors (or maybe you have found THE ONE), talk to an advisor about the requirements for completing the major. Taking certain courses in a certain sequence may be required, but there may be others: Grade point average, internships, clinical work, or field requirements are just some of the “extras” that could be necessary for you to achieve before you can walk across the stage. Are you willing and able to complete those requirements?

Of course, after you’ve answered these questions—and done a little research—talk to everyone you can find. Ask advisors, career counselors, faculty, upper-class students, and employers about how they made their own decisions and what advice they would give you. You will find that choosing a major or minor that suits your interests and long-term plans is a little bit science (doing the research) and a little bit of an art (staying true to yourself).